Macro sociological perspectives

Distinguish macro approaches in sociology from micro approaches. Summarize the most important beliefs and assumptions of functionalism and conflict theory.

Macro sociological perspectives

Macro-level processes approach the investigation of social life as it exists in social systems, institutional structures within society, and the relationships among the various structures within society.

Such concerns represent those of the classical period of sociology and its founding fathers such as Durkheim, Marx, and Weber. Micro-level processes approach the investigation of social life as it exists in interpersonal and interactional processes.

Thus, it is the individual in social context that is of central importance. These two contrasting theoretical perspectives-often referred to as micro-sociology and macro-sociology-use different concepts drawing from micro-level or macro-level processes to explain social life.

According to Wippler and Lindenbergthere are no clear Macro sociological perspectives points in this distinction. However, an example constituting a micro-level process would be if the scope were focused on interaction among individuals; if the scope were focused on the value system of a society, this would constitute a macro-level process.

Micro-sociology analyzes the underlying social processes responsible for relations between persons. Micro-level processes thus focus on social interaction and communication; important concepts are symbols, obligations, exchange, and reciprocity.

Macro-sociology, on the other hand, analyzes the structure of different positions in a population and their constraints on social relations. Macro-level processes thus focus on the influence of the social environment on people's relations, and important concepts are differentiation, institutions, and inequality Blau, Talcott Parsons is credited with playing a central role in helping structural functionalism obtain its dominant position in American sociological theory.

With respect to theories oriented to micro-level processes or micro-theories prior to the s, symbolic interactionism is worth mentioning during the time that macro-theories strongly dominated sociological theory. According to Ritzerthe late s and s were a time during which micro-theories gained popularity in American sociological theory, most notably with the developments Macro sociological perspectives exchange theory and the work of George Homans and Peter Blau.

Homans was working on a theoretical alternative to Parson's structural functionalism that addressed its limitations and macro-orientation. His work applied principles from psychology specifically behaviorism to issues of sociological importance.

According to BlauHomans was attempting to develop a behavioristic and scientific micro-theoretical alternative to macro-theoretical orientations.

Difference Between Micro and Macro Sociology | Micro vs Macro Sociology Theoretical strategies[ edit ] There are a number of theoretical strategies within contemporary macrosociology, but four of them stand out as major ones: The Idealist Strategy attempts to explain the basic features of social life by reference to the creative capacity of the human mind.
Sociological perspective on micro macro Sociology is a broad topic, therefore widening the scope of theories needed to explain sociological phenomena.
Account Options Micro sociology deals with the nature of human behavior and human social interaction, based on small scale studies.

During this time, Blau was also developing his own theory, a type of exchange theory that extended its original micro-oriented principles to macro-level processes Ritzer,and thus was an integrative effort to also appeal to supporters of macro-theories.

There were also notable developments in phenomenology and ethnomethodology during the rise in popularity of micro-theories, including the work of individual theorists like Albert Schutz.

However, these developments came up against hostility from conventional macro-oriented theorists. According to Ritzerthis hostility centered on the emphasis of phenomenology and ethnomethodology with "trivial micro-sociological issues and for losing sight of the importance of social structures and social institutions.

Three Major Perspectives in Sociology

Their apparent focus on creative consciousness led to the view that theorists with such an orientation were not, indeed could not be, scientific" p.

Applications Macro-level Processes Macro-level processes in sociological theory approach the investigation of social life as it exists in social systems, institutional structures within society, and the relationships among the various structures within society.

From this macro-theoretical perspective, it is the structures within society that set the stage or serves as the context for individual behavior. The theoretical concerns of macro-level processes represent those of the classical period of sociology. The founding fathers of sociology-Marx, Durkheim and Weber-attended to such macro-oriented analyses.

The following section will briefly review three major theoretical perspectives that focus on macro-level processes: Marx's theory of stratification, Parsons's structural functionalism, and Dahrendorf's conflict theory.

Marxism German philosopher Karl Marx's writings of the nineteenth century, including The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital, are perhaps the most influential attempts to understand the origins and development of stratification in capitalist societies.

It is these writings and others published by Marx and his friend and collaborator Friedrich Engels that form the foundation of thought and belief known as Marxism. Marx's theory of stratification is based on the assumption that the foundations of human society are based on the way in which society has developed its relationship to the means of production.

According to Marx, the means of production refers to the productive resources in society; for example, things that are necessary to supply the society's economic needs such as types of technology used to produce basic necessities.

The central feature of stratification, according to Marx, is the subordination among classes that evolves ultimately from the means of production Smelser, In other words, an individual's relationship to society's economic system depends on how they relate to the sources of power in that system.

Thus, for Marx, those people who hold the same position with regard to the productive process share a class. The unequal distribution of society's productive resources creates a system of stratification.

People situated at these various rankings in the vertical order receive unequal shares of the society's wealth and possess differential degrees of power over others. Essentially, then, societies are composed of two classes: According to Marx, the division between these two classes would inevitably grow until a dynamic class struggle forced revolutionary societal change.

Marx views capitalism as a political tool for this ranking of human groups for the purpose of distributing wealth and power within the economic system rather than as a system for producing goods and services to fill human needs.

Macro sociological perspectives

It is the social institutions in societies such as the economy, government, and education that operate to assure the position of various human groups Freedman, Structural Functionalism Talcott Parsons is regarded as the theorist who brought the structural functionalism approach to its most developed form.

His publication of The Structure of Social Action in was pivotal in American sociological theory, in that it solidified the strength of structural functional theory in the decades to come.

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It was this piece of Parsons's work and others that concentrated on the structures of society and their relationship to each other with an emphasis on how order is maintained among the various elements of society.The functionalist perspective (functionalism) is a major theoretical perspective in sociology, focusing on the macro-level of social structure.

The functionalist perspective (functionalism) is a major theoretical perspective in sociology, focusing on the macro-level of social structure. Macro sociologists argue that society is in a more priority than individual as his behavior is formed by society he was born and brought up in.

Macro sociology includes several important sociological perspectives such as: functionalism that focuses on relationship between the parts of society and how aspects of society are functional and Conflict Theory which main focus is competition for scarce .

Though they are often framed as opposing approaches, macro- and microsociology are actually complementary approaches to studying society, and necessarily so. Macrosociology refers to sociological approaches and methods that examine large-scale patterns and trends within the overall social structure, system, and population.

Sociological theories may be broadly divided into macro approaches and micro approaches.

Sociological perspective on micro macro

Functionalism emphasizes the importance of social institutions for social stability and implies that far-reaching social change will be socially harmful. These two contrasting theoretical perspectives-often referred to as micro-sociology and macro-sociology-use different concepts drawing from micro-level or macro-level processes to explain social life.

There are two types of sociological theories: macro and micro. Macro theories focus on the society as a whole and aim at establishing the general characteristics of the society.

​What Differences Lie Between Macro & Micro Sociological Perspectives? – AcHaaB_dAn GH