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Allotropic transformation[ edit ] At This frequently makes tin objects like buttons decompose into powder during the transformation, hence the name Describing california pest. Tin objects at low temperatures will simply disintegrate. Possible historical examples[ edit ] Scott expedition to Antarctica[ edit ] In British polar explorer Robert Scott hoped to be the first to reach the South Polebut was beaten by Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen.
On foot, the expedition trudged through the frozen deserts of the Antarcticmarching for caches of food and kerosene deposited on the way in. In earlyat the first cache, there was no kerosene; the cans — soldered with tin — were empty. The cause of the empty tins could have been related to tin pest.
Napoleon's buttons[ edit ] The story is often told of Napoleon 's men freezing in the bitter Russian Wintertheir clothes falling apart as tin pest ate the buttons.
This clearly appears to be an urban legend, and there is no evidence that there existed any failing buttons at all, and thus they cannot have been a contributing factor in the failure of the invasion. Laboratory tests provide evidence that the time required for unalloyed tin to develop significant tin pest damage at lowered temperatures is about 18 months, which is more than twice the length of the invasion.
For example, the leads of some electrical and electronic components are plated with pure tin.
Such problems can be intermittent as the powdered particles of tin move around. Tin pest can be avoided by alloying with small amounts of electropositive metals or semimetals soluble in tin's solid phase e.
See also[ edit ] Gold-aluminium intermetallic - giving rise to Purple plague or White plague, another failure mode for electronic components due to the formation of a crystalline substance. Zinc pest - decay of zinc by an unrelated intercrystalline corrosion process.
Whisker metallurgy - a small wire formed on metal surface. This is also another problem for lead-free solder on electric devices that the tin-whisker cause a short circuit.Discography of American Historical Recordings. Welcome to the Discography of American Historical Recordings (DAHR), a database of master recordings made by American record companies during the 78rpm era.
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They are wrong. California is not a lie; it is a disappointment only because it is .