Nicholas Hookway Journal of Sociology http: Critiquing the legacy of sagepub. Three specific assumptions are identified and critiqued: The article suggests that these assumptions work to ignore how self, emotions and cultural ideals of self-improvement may work as alternate moral structures in late modernity.
Origins of the Decline Thesis[ edit ] Sultan Suleiman Iwhose reign was seen as constituting a golden age. In the Ottoman Empire[ edit ] The idea of decline first emerged among the Ottomans themselves.
Nasihatname literature was primarily concerned with order and disorder in state and society; it conceptualized the ruler as the embodiment of justice, whose duty it was to ensure that his subjects would receive that justice.
This was often expressed through the concept of the Circle of Justice Ottoman Turkish: In this conception, the provision of justice by the ruler to his subjects would allow those subjects to prosper, strengthening the ruler in turn. These writers viewed the changes which the empire had undergone as an inherently negative corruption of an idealized Suleimanic past.
However, it is now recognized that rather than simply describing objective reality, they were often utilizing the genre of decline to voice their own personal complaints.
Internal decline was thus thought of as an appropriate means of explaining the Ottomans' external military defeats, and acted also as a justification for European imperialism.
Islam as an all-encompassing civilizational category often came to be portrayed as the polar opposite of the West, whereby Western societies valued freedom, rationality, and progress while Islam valued servility, superstition, and stagnation. Gibb and Harold Bowen, and Bernard Lewiswho adhered to a civilizational conception of Islamic decline while modifying it with the new sociological paradigm of Modernization Theory.
The most prominent writer on Ottoman decline was the historian Bernard Lewis who argued that the Ottoman Empire experienced all-encompassing decline affecting government, society and civilization.
He laid out his views in the article, "Some Reflections on the Decline of the Ottoman Empire,"  which developed into the mainstream opinion of Orientalist scholars of the mid-twentieth century.
However, the article is now highly criticized and no longer considered accurate by modern historians. The first ten sultans of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I to Suleiman the Magnificent were of excellent personal quality, while those who came after Suleiman were without exception "incompetents, degenerates, and misfits," a result of the Kafes system of succession, whereby dynastic princes no longer gained experience in provincial government before coming to the throne.
Faulty leadership at the top led to decay in all branches of government: The Ottoman military lost its strength and began to experience defeats on the battlefield.
They ceased to keep up with the advances of European military science, and consequently suffered territorial losses. As the Ottoman state and society was geared towards constant expansion, their sudden failure to achieve new conquests left the empire unable to adapt to its new relationship with Europe.
Economically, the empire was undermined by the discovery of the New World and the subsequent shift in the economic balance between the Mediterranean and Atlantic Europe, as well as the voyages of discovery which brought Europeans to India, and led to a decline in the volume of trade passing through Ottoman ports.
In addition, the Price Revolution led to the destabilization of Ottoman coinage and a severe fiscal crisis, which proved disastrous when paired with the rapidly rising costs of warfare. As the cavalry army of the Ottomans became obsolete, the Timar System of land tenure which had sustained it fell into obsolescence, while the corrupt bureaucracy was unable to replace it with a functional alternative.
Instead, tax-farming was introduced, leading to corruption and oppression of the peasantry, and agricultural decline.Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community is a nonfiction book by Robert D.
Putnam. It was developed from his essay entitled " . The Decline of American Cities, for example, is not a thesis statement but a title. In fact, it isn’t a sentence, and a In fact, it isn’t a sentence, and a thesis statement must be a complete sentence. “y subject is the decline of American cities” is not a thesis.
Putnam’s main thesis is that the amount of social capital in the United States is declining. That is, Americans are longer tied together as closely as they once were. The modern community garden movement in the United States: Its roots, its current condition and its prospects for the future Joshua Birky University of South Florida This thesis shows that the current U.S.
community garden movement is inherently different than past. The Decline Thesis of British Slavery since Econocide Seymour Drescher* PART ONE: THE DECLINE THESIS AND ITS OPPONENTS Appearing in , Capitalism and Slavery was a .
Although the decline-of-community thesis has received considerable attention from urban sociologists, most of the empirical evidence brought to bear on the thesis has been cross-sectional rather than longitudinal.
In the present study this deficiency is overcome.