The thirteen colonies are usually grouped, according to the form of government, into three classes -- the Charter, the Royal, and the Proprietary; but recent historical criticism has reduced these three forms to two, the Corporation and the Provincial.
Posted on April 27, by Scott Alexander I. I read it anyway on the advice of people who kept telling me it explains everything about America. And it sort of does. Different parts of the country were settled by very different groups of Englishmen with different regional backgrounds, religions, social classes, and philosophies.
The colonization process essentially extracted a single stratum of English society, isolated it from all the others, and then plunked it down on its own somewhere in the Eastern US. I used to play Alpha Centauri, a computer game about the colonization of its namesake star system. One of the dynamics that made it so interesting was its backstory, where a Puerto Rican survivalist, an African plutocrat, and other colorful characters organized their own colonial expeditions and competed to seize territory and resources.
You got to explore not only the settlement of a new world, but the settlement of a new world by societies dominated by extreme founder effects.
What kind of weird pathologies and wonderful innovations do you get when a group of overly romantic Scottish environmentalists is allowed to develop on its own trajectory free of all non-overly-romantic-Scottish-environmentalist influences?
Fischer describes four of these migrations: The Puritans I hear about these people every Thanksgiving, then never think about them again for the next days. They were a Calvinist sect that dissented against the Church of England and followed their own brand of dour, industrious, fun-hating Christianity.
Most of them were from East Anglia, the part of England just northeast of London. I knew about the Mayflower, I knew about the black hats and silly shoes, I even knew about the time Squanto threatened to release a bioweapon buried under Plymouth Rock that would bring about the apocalypse.
Much like eg Unitarians today, the Puritans were a religious group that drew disproportionately from the most educated and education-obsessed parts of the English populace. Literacy among immigrants to Massachusetts was twice as high as the English average, and in an age when the vast majority of Europeans were farmers most immigrants to Massachusetts were skilled craftsmen or scholars.
The Puritans tried to import African slaves, but they all died of the cold. The average family size in Waltham, Massachusetts in the s was 9. Everyone was compelled by law to live in families. Town officials would search the town for single people and, if found, order them to join a family; if they refused, they were sent to jail.
Some Puritans took pride in their learning by giving their children obscure Biblical names they would expect nobody else to have heard of, like Mahershalalhasbaz. Still others chose Biblical words completely at random and named their children things like Maybe or Notwithstanding.
Along with the famous scarlet A for adultery, Puritans could be forced to wear a B for blasphemy, C for counterfeiting, D for drunkenness, and so on. Wasting time in Massachusetts was literally a criminal offense, listed in the law code, and several people were in fact prosecuted for it.
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote of Massachusetts Puritanism: A typical Massachusetts week would begin in the church, which doubled as the town meeting hall. There were no decorations except a giant staring eye on the pulpit to remind churchgoers that God was watching them. Townspeople would stand up before their and declare their shame and misdeeds, sometimes being forced to literally crawl before the other worshippers begging for forgiveness.
THen the minister would give two two-hour sermons back to back. The entire affair would take up to six hours, and the church was unheated for some reason they stored all their gunpowder there, so no one was allowed to light a fireand this was Massachusetts, and it was colder in those days than it is now, so that during winter some people would literally lose fingers to frostbite Fischer: Everyone would stand there with their guns they were legally required to bring guns, in case Indians attacked during the sermon and hear about how they were going to Hell, all while the giant staring eye looked at them.
So life as a Puritan was pretty terrible. On the other hand, their society was impressively well-ordered. Teenage pregnancy rates were the lowest in the Western world and in some areas literally zero. Murder rates were half those in other American colonies.
Government was conducted through town meetings in which everyone had a say. Women had more equality than in most parts of the world, and domestic abuse was punished brutally.
In some ways the Puritans seem to have taken the classic dystopian bargain — give up all freedom and individuality and art, and you can have a perfect society without crime or violence or inequality. That was going too far. The Cavaliers The Massachusetts Puritans fled England in the s partly because the king and nobles were oppressing them.
In the s, English Puritans under Oliver Cromwell rebelled, took over the government, and killed the king. The nobles not unreasonably started looking to get the heck out.
Virginia had been kind of a wreck ever since most of the original Jamestown settlers had mostly died of disease.Register with us today and in less than 60 seconds continue your access to: Latest news headlines Analytical topics and features Commodities videos, podcast & blogs Sample market prices & data Special reports Subscriber notes & daily commodity email alerts.
Kammen, Michael. Deputyes and Libertyes: The Origins of Representative Government in Colonial America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Padover, Saul K. The World of the Founding Fathers.
New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, Virginia th Anniversary Celebration Corporation. The Three Charters of the Virginia Company of London. Colonial American beverages Hot, non-alcoholic Coffee, tea and chocolate were popular non-alcoholic hot beverages during American Colonial times.
These imports were expensive, but not beyond the reach of the average person. Folks too poor to afford the real thing brewed hot beverages from herbs, flowers, bark, roots, and woody stems. This article's lead section may be too long for the length of the article.
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Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. (June ). Elections in Colonial Virginia Contributed by John G. Kolp Elections were an integral part of the colonial political system and used primarily to choose members of the House of Burgesses, the lower house of the General Assembly in Virginia, and less frequently to select members of the vestry in .
Virginia's economy, for most of the colonial period, relied on this one product. This meant that all farmers, large and small, had similar interests: the price of tobacco, the size of the English import tax, and the access to foreign markets allowed by British trade policy.